移民执法机构(ICE)正式获得全美国范围的车牌识别数据库 – 如何保护自己的权利

如果你有被ICE毫无原因的拦截下来因为它们扫到了你的车牌号,你需要如何维护自己的权利呢?

根据最新报告,移民和海关执法部门(ICE)已经签署了一份合同,使其能够监察全美国范围内的车牌识别数据库。移民执法部门可以通过这项技术查看数十亿的车牌记录并实时追踪。

ICE与 Vigilant Solutions公司签署了合作合同。该公司拥有超过20亿张车牌照的车牌记录。使用该数据库,ICE代理将能够查看过去五年车牌的位置,以及与车牌相关人员的个人信息。

倡议公民自由的宣传团体说这样的数据库很可能被滥用来监视无辜公民以及侵害隐私。如果你有被ICE毫无原因的拦截下来因为它们扫到了你的车牌号,你需要如何维护自己的权利呢?

如果你在户外被警察拦下:
  • 你有权利保持沉默。你需要告诉警察你选择保持沉默 (I choose to remain silent)。在有些州,你需要告诉警察你的名字。不要用假名字。
  • 千万保持镇定。不要跑,不要慌张。不要争辩,抗拒,或者妨碍警察执行公务。这些可能都是可以累加的罪名,例如 obstruction of justice, resisting arrest, etc.
  • 把手放在警察可以看见的地方。不要放在口袋里或者包里。警察如果看不到你的手,可能会怀疑你有武器。
  • 询问警察你是否有被逮捕或者扣留 (Am I under arrest?) 如果警察没有可以逮捕你的理由,你可以询问是否可以离开 (May I leave?)
  • 如果警察允许你离开的话,保持镇静,慢速走开。不要跑,让警察可以看到你的手。走开始不要讲话。
  • 如果警察征询你的意见想要搜查你的物品或者你本人,你可以拒绝 (No)。
如果你在驾车时警察亮灯拦下了你:
  • 尽量把车停到车流少的地方,这是为了你的安全,也是为了减少堵车隐患。你可以拐到小路上或者停在高速的隔离带上。
  • 把车熄火,如果是晚上的话, 打开车内的灯。把车窗摇开一半,把上手放在方向盘上。
  • 警察会要求你出示驾驶执照 (license),车辆登记证明 (registration),以及保险 (insurance)。如果你没有这些证明的话,是违反法律的 (Driving without a license/ Driving without insurance). 有些警察会同意你给保险证明,比如过邮件或者上个月的保险。
  • 如果警察想要搜查你的车辆,你可以拒绝。除非警察觉得你的车内有犯罪证据,他们是不需要你的许可就可以搜查你的车。比如说,如果警察看到你车内有大麻或者大量现金,警察可以在不经你允许的情况下搜查的车。这个的原因在于警察有 probable cause 认为你用你的车辆进行非法活动。
  • 车内的乘客均有权保持沉默。如果你不是司机,只是乘客,你可以询问是否可以离开。
如果你被询问你的移民身份 (immigration status):
  • 你有权保持沉默。任何关于你的出生国家,以及你是否是美国公民,你都有权拒绝回答。当然,这个只限用于你在美国本土,若果你在机场或者入境港口被边境海关询问这些问题,你需要如实回答。你需要向移民官员出示你的真实的文件。
  • 不要谎报你的名字或者身份,说谎或者出示假证件会有非常严重的后果。
你需要找一个有经验的律师维护你的隐私权以及美国宪法给予你的权利。宪法第四修正案保护每一个人的权利。

DHS Memos Bring Huge Changes to the U.S. Immigration System

Department of Homeland Security Secretary, John Kelly, releases two memorandums this week implementing President’s Trump’s executive orders on border security (memo-1) and interior enforcement (memo-2). Besides the border wall President Trump promised to build, we will likely to see massive enforcement effort in the upcoming months and scaled up detention and expedited removal.

Below are some of points I summarized:

  1. DHS seeks to deport anyone who “poses a risk to public safety or national security.” However, DHS did not define these two terms clearly. Theoretically speaking, DHS could label someone being “a risk to public safety” even if (s)he is not charged or convicted for a crime.
  2. DHS will focus on undocumented immigrants who have been (1) convicted or even charged with a criminal offense, including minor traffic infractions, (2) abused any program related to receipt of public benefits, i.e. received any government assistance, or (3) “have engaged in fraud or willful misrepresentation in connection with any official matter before a governmental agency”, including using fake Social Security numbers to work or lie on I-9 forms.
  3. DHS memos expanded the period of expedited removal from 2 weeks to 2 years after people enter the country, and eliminated the requirement that the immigrants be caught within 100 miles of the border. People in expedited removal will not go through the removal proceedings, which involve a hearing before an immigration judge. It is extremely important to keep records of two (2) year presence so you are not put in expedited removal.
  4. The use of parole authority to allow immigrants, who are not in possession of visas or not eligible for visas, to come to the U.S. will be extremely restricted.
  5. DHS seeks to return aliens, including unaccompanied children, who entered from a foreign land contiguous to the U.S. to where they arrived, meaning if they entered from Mexico, DHS will return them to Mexico, regardless of their nationality.
  6. DHS will hire an additional 10,000 ICE agents and officers to carry out enforcement priorities. We will likely to see more deportation and detention nationwide.
  7. DHS wants expand to continue and increase state and local law enforcement involvement in border areas, so they can aid in immigration enforcement.

The Law Office of Maya King will keep you informed about the newest changes in the complicated U.S. immigration system. If you or your family needs any advice or help, please call us at (913) 717-7112 for a free consultation.